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HOMEOSTASIS
Test

 
Part A: Multiple Choice
 
1. Homeostasis is best defined as:

a) a positive feedback control that enables the body to respond to changes in the external environment;

b) a control system that causes body systems to change if the external environment remains constant;

c) a feedback system designed to maintain body systems within an optimal range while responding to environmental or external changes;

d) a feedback system that prevents a body system from changing

e) a control system designed to regulate the external environment by making subtle changes to the internal environment

 

2. In times of stress, under the influence of cortisol, levels of amino acids increase in the blood. Why is this change beneficial as a response to stress?

a) The amino acids are converted into proteins, which provide more energy to deal with stress;

b) The amino acids are converted to glycogen by the liver, lowering blood sugar, which stimulates the release of TRH;

c) The amino acids are converted to glycogen by the liver, lowering blood sugar, which stimulates the release of insulin;

d) The amino acids are converted into proteins, which are used to repair cells damaged by the stress;

e) The amino acids are converted to glucose by the liver, raising blood sugar, thereby providing more energy to deal with stress

 

3. Which of the following describes a negative feedback reaction?

a) Glucagon stimulates the release of glucose from the liver, which increases blood glucose;

b) Calcitonin is released from the thyroid gland and blood calcium levels decrease;

c) LH stimulates the interstitial cell to produce testosterone, which inhibits the release of LH;

d) The hypothalamus releases TRH, which travels to the pituitary gland initiating the release of TSH, which stimulates the release of thyroxine from the thyroid gland;

e) All of the above describe negative feedback reactions

 

4. Glucagon is produced in an organ and affects target cells that are in another part of the body. The organ of production and the location of the target cells are, respectively, which of the following?

a) pancreas and liver

b) adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex

c) hypothalamus and pituitary

d) liver and pancreas

e) pituitary and adrenal medulla

 

5. What makes it possible for an impulse to move from one neuron to an adjacent neuron?

a) Neurotransmitters are released from the dendrites of one neuron and diffuse to the axon terminal of the adjacent neuron;

b) Dendrites of one neuron always touch the axon of the adjacent neuron;

c) Cerebrospinal fluids are released from the axon terminal of one neuron and diffuse to the axons of the adjacent neuron;

d) The axon of one neuron always touches the axon of the adjacent neuron;

e) Neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal of one neuron and diffuse to the dendrites of the adjacent neuron

 

6. A rapid increase in external temperature would be followed by which homeostatic adjustment in humans?

a) an increase in urine production and decrease in heart rate;

b) decreased blood flow to the arms and shivering;

c) an increase in blood flow to the arms and an increase in perspiration;

d) the formation of goosebumps and shivering;

e) an increased heart rate and decreased blood flow to the arms

 

7. After a severe cut to the skin, the production of urine temporarily decreases. This can be explained by the drop in blood pressure, which causes

a) the release of aldesterone, which increases K+ reabsorption in the nephron, leading to decreased water reabsorption;

b) the release of ADH, which increases water reabsorption in the nephron;

c) the release of aldesterone, which increases Na+ reabsorption in the nephron, leading to increased water reaabsorption

d) the release of ADH, which decreases water reabsorption in the nephron;

e) the release of aldesterone, which increases Na+ reabsorption in the nephron, leading to decreased water reabsorption

 

8. Which of the following would be the result of hyper-secretion of the thyroid gland?

a) no change in body weight but increased body temperatures and increased urine output;

b) a tendency not to gain weight, a warm peripheral body temperature, and a high energy level;

c) a tendency to gain weight, a warm peripheral body temperature, and a low energy level

d) a tendency not to gain weight, a cold peripheral body temperature, and a low energy level;

e) a tendency to gain weight, a cold peripheral body temperature, and a low energy level

 

9. What is the function of memory T-cells?

a) produces antibodies

b) remains in the blood stream to promote a faster response if the same foreign antigen reappears

c) acts as a guard to identify foreign invading substances

 

10. In times of stress, under the influence of cortisol, levels of amino acids increase in the blood. Why is this change beneficial as a response to stress?

a) The amino acids are converted into proteins, which provide more energy to deal with stress;

b) The amino acids are converted to glycogen by the liver, lowering blood sugar, which stimulates the release of TRH;

c) The amino acids are converted to glycogen by the liver, lowering blood sugar, which stimulates the release of insulin;

d) The amino acids are converted into proteins, which are used to repair cells damaged by the stress;

e) The amino acids are converted to glucose by the liver, raising blood sugar, thereby providing more energy to deal with stress

 

Part B: Fill in the Blanks

1.  An __________ in the heart rate during exercise or the _________ of _________ from the liver to restore blood sugar levels are examples of the _____________ made by ________.

 

2. When external temperatures drop, the hypothalamus sends messages to the ________ and tissues to ________ body temperature. The _________ of the arterioles _______ heat loss from the skin and _______ heat in the core of the body.

 

3. The ___________ system is made up of two distinct units, the ____________ _______________ system and the parasympathetic _________ system.

 

4. The central nervous system consists of the ____ and the ________________.

 

5. The _______ cord carries ______ nerve messages from the ________ to muscles, organs, and glands.

 

6. Secretion is the movement of _________ from the ______ into the _______.

 

7. When ADH makes the cell membrane _______, the high concentration of _____ in the intercellular spaces creates osmotic pressure that draws _______ from the ________ section of the _______ tubule and __________ duct.

 

8. The CNS acts s a coordinating center for _________ and ________ information.

 

9. The PNS consists of ______ that carry information between the _______ of the body and the ______________________ system.

 

10. Reflex arcs contain five essential components: the ________, the ________ neuron, the interneuron in the spinal cord, the ________ neuron, and the ________.

 

11. The more rapid the _________ of potassium ions out of the _____ membrane means that the nerve cell ______ a greater number of _______ ions than it _____, and the exterior of the membrane becomes ________ relative to the interior.

 

12. Along with the _______ system, the endocrine system provides integration and _________ of the __________ and tissues.

 

13. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the body ________ produce any or enough ________.

 

14. The ______________ is composed of two separate lobes: posterior and anterior lobes.

 

15.  __________ are regulating chemicals that are made at one place in the body and affect cells in other parts of the body.

 

16.  Non-specific defence include macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes that kill bacteria by the process of ___________.

 

17. _________ occur when the immune system mistakes harmless cells for harmful invaders.

 

18. The ______________ consists of a variety of white blood cells and proteins that attack foreign invaders such bacteria and viruses.

 

19.  Urine formation depends on three functions: ________, __________, and __________.

 

20. ________________ and _____________ are controlled by T-cells and are initiated by the action of macrophages.

 

Answers

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Maintaining an Internal Balance | The Importance of Excreting Wastes | Chemical Signals Maintain Homeostasis | How Nerve Signals Maintain Homeostasis | The Maintenance of Balance by the Immune System | Key Terms | Quiz | Test

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